Phew, this was a big project. I’ve just finished all of the media for our Shoulder Pain series cases and lessons. We wanted to show both real and “idealized” anatomy, so in addition to the illustrations we made sure to include x-rays, CTs, and MRIs where applicable. I think it makes for a much more complete learning experience!
Illustration process: I started with a base set of anatomical models in Blender, made model adjustments as needed to correct anatomy, applied and edited textures (either directly in Blender or in Photoshop), applied materials, set up my lighting, and rendered. Then I painted and edited heavily in Photoshop to get the look I wanted – you can see this especially in the muscles. Layouts and labels were added finally in Illustrator.